In the United States, a certified nurse midwife (CNM) is an advanced practice registered nurse in nurse midwifery, the nursing care of women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Certified nurse midwives are exceptionally recognized by the International Confederation of Midwives as a type of midwives in the United States. Certified nurse midwife function as primary healthcare providers for women and most often provide medical care for relatively healthy women, whose health and births are considered uncomplicated and not "high risk," as well as their neonates. Often, women with high risk pregnancies can receive the benefits of nurse midwifery care from a certified nurse midwife in collaboration with a physician. Certified nurse midwife may work closely or in collaboration, with an obstetrician & gynecologist, who provides consultation and/or assistance to patients who develop complications or have complex medical histories or disease(s).